Objectives: Epidemiological reports of sexual life and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection among Japanese men are scarce, and the necessity of HPV vaccines for males is regarded as a controversial topic in Japan. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution, and risk factors against HPV infections targeted by bivalent (2v), quadrivalent (4v), and 9-valent (9v) HPV vaccines among Japanese male patients who visited our urological clinics. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 798 males aged 20 to 95 years (mean ± standard deviation, 55.4 ± 19.5 years). We collected scraping samples from the glans penis using cotton swabs from all patients for genotyping of HPVs. We compared patients’ characteristics and detected HPV genotypes in order to determine the risk factors against HPV infections. Results: Of 798 participants, 198 participants (198/798; 24.8%) had at least one genotype of any HPV infection. The total number of detected HPV genotypes was 328. Of 328 genotypes, 30% (n = 99; 99/328) were 9v HPV genotypes. Most frequently detected types of high-risk HPV infection were type 52 (n = 40; 40/328; 12.2%). Number of lifetime sex partners (≥21) and present or history of sexually transmitted infections were found to be predictors of any HPV infection with adjusted odds ratios of 3.106 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.593–6.509) and 1.894 (95% CI, 1.185–3.026), respectively. Age of sex initiation was a predictor of 2v and 4v HPV infections with adjusted odds ratios of 100 (95% CI, 1.013–25.673) and 2.676 (95% CI, 1.037–6.905), respectively. Number of lifetime sex partners (≥21) was a predictor of 9v HPVs with adjusted odds ratios of 2.397 (95% CI, 1.060–5.424). Conclusions: Approximately, a quarter of Japanese male patients who visited urological clinics were exposed to HPV. Moreover, from the perspective of our multivariate logistic regression analysis, some kinds of sexual behavior aggravate the risk of typical HPV genotypes infections.
Yukimasa Matsuzawa, T. Kitamura, Motofumi Suzuki