The generalizability of differences in dietary restrictions (DRs) as function of socioeconomic status (SES) and the pathways of the associations between SES and DRs remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore SES differences in DRs and psychosocial mediators between SES and DRs in Japanese patients receiving hemodialysis. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 6,644 outpatients (average age = 66.5 years; 65% males) of hemodialysis facilities across Japan. DRs were assessed by self-reported and objective measures, and SES was assessed based on education and income. Three psychosocial mediators were used: self-efficacy, control expectancy, and social support. Indirect influences of SES through the mediators were evaluated with a multiple mediator model. Although higher education was significantly associated with higher self-reported DRs, higher income was significantly associated with lower self-reported DRs. Significant SES differences in objective DRs were not observed. The relationships between education and self-reported DRs and objective DRs were significantly mediated by self-efficacy and/or control expectancy. The influences of income were mediated by social support. It becomes possible to design interventions targeting modifiable psychosocial factors including self-efficacy, control expectancy, and social support in order to reduce SES inequalities in DRs.
H. Sugisawa, T. Shinoda, Y. Shimizu
International Journal of Nephrology