Background Though titanium (Ti) is widely used as dental materials in the clinic, effective methods to treat Ti for higher surface biological activity still lack. Through Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) technology we could endow Ti with gradient nanostructured surface (GNS Ti). To investigate the biocompatibility of GNS Ti for its further application in dental implant field, we study the effects of GNS Ti on cell responses in vitro and osseointegration of the implant with surrounding bone tissues in vivo. Methods In this study, GNS Ti was fabricated by SMAT. In vitro experiment, we co-cultured GNS Ti with bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), surface characterization was detected by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), MTT, flow cytometry (FCM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) tests. In vivo experiment, the GNS Ti was implanted into the rabbit mandible. Osteogenesis and osseointegration were evaluated by Micro CT, toluidine blue staining, and immunohistochemical staining at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Results Both results showed that compared with the coarse grained (CG) Ti, the GNS Ti stimulated the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of BMSCs and improved osteogenesis and osseointegration. Conclusions This study indicates that gradient nanostructured Ti is a promising material for dental implant application.
Nanjue Cao, Yuhe Zhu, Fei Gao
Annals of translational medicine