The enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds of ADP-ribose polymers, producing monomeric ADP-ribose units. Thus, in conjunction with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), PARG activity regulates the extent of in vivo poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Small molecule inhibitors of PARP and PARG have shown considerable promise in cellular models of ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative neuronal cell death. However, currently available PARG inhibitors are not ideal due to cell permeability, size, and/or toxicity concerns; therefore, new small molecule inhibitors of this important enzyme are sorely needed. Existing methodologies for in vitro assessment of PARG enzymatic activity do not lend themselves to high-throughput screening applications, as they typically use a radiolabeled substrate and determine product quantities through TLC analysis. This article describes a method whereby the ADP-ribose product of the PARG-catalyzed reaction is converted into a fluorescent dye. This highly sensitive and reproducible method is demonstrated by identifying two known PARG inhibitors in a 384-well plate assay and by subsequently determining IC(50) values for these compounds. Thus, this high-throughput, nonradioactive PARG assay should find widespread use in experiments directed toward identification of novel PARG inhibitors.
Karson S Putt, Paul J Hergenrother