Uveitis is a sight-threatening primary intraocular inflammation of various origins in mainly young and active patients. Due to the absence of biomarkers in most of the cases, the current treatment of noninfectious entities remains nonspecific, using corticosteroids, conventional immunosuppressors, and more recently biological agents. Identification of regulatory T cells in different models of autoimmune uveitis together with the evaluation of this important subpopulation in different entities paved the way for new therapeutic strategies, in addition to exclusive pharmaceutical approaches. Upregulation of regulatory T cells induced by biological agents has been recently highlighted. Development of cell therapy in autoimmune diseases is at its stammering needing more experimental data and robust clinical trials to demonstrate safety and efficacy before larger developments. Specific or polyclonal Tregs may be used, but it is of utmost importance to determine the method of selection, the level of activation, and the route of administration. Mastering immune cell therapy remains a challenging goal in patients with autoimmune diseases, but it may significantly enlarge our therapeutic possibilities in severe and refractory situations.
A. Foussat, S. Grégoire, N. Clerget-Chossat
Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics