At the present time low energy electron diffraction, LEED, is probably the most important experimental technique for the investigation of surface structures. LEED is primarily a research tool in fundamental studies since it requires ultra-high vacuum conditions and single-crystal samples. However, if these requirements are met, LEED has the potential of determining the positions of all the atoms in the topmost layers of the crystal. A complete structure analysis has so far been carried out for relatively few surfaces, but a determination of just the two-dimensional periodicity provides very useful information about phenomena such as surface reconstruction, surface phase transitions, and surface adsorption and reactions.
P. J. Estrup
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