The objective of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to compare the methodology and evaluate the efficacy of Enhanced recovery after Spine Surgery (ERAS) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and to compare the outcomes with traditional discharge (TD) pathways. Using major databases, a systematic search was performed. Studies comparing the implementation of ERAS or ERAS-like and TD pathways in patients with AIS were identified. Data regarding methodology and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Fourteen studies (n = 2456) were included, comprising 1081 TD and 1375 ERAS or ERAS-like patients. Average age of patients was 14.6 ± 0.4 years. Surgical duration was on average 35.6 min shorter for the ERAS group compared to TD cohort ([2.8, 68.3], p = 0.03), and blood loss was 112.3 milliliters less ([102.4, 122.2], p < 0.00001). ERAS group reached first ambulation 29.6 h earlier ([11.2, 48.0], p-0.002), patient-controlled-analgesia (PCA) discontinuation 0.53 day earlier ([0.4, 0.6], p < 0.00001), urinary catheter discontinuation 0.5 day earlier ([0.4, 0.6], p < 0.00001), and length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.6 days shorter ([1.4, 1.8], p < 0.00001). Rates of complications and 30-day-readmission-to-hospital were similar between both groups. Pain scores were significantly lower for ERAS group on days 0 through 2 post-operatively. Use of ERAS after AIS is safe and effective, decreasing surgical duration and blood loss. ERAS methodology effectively focused on reducing time to first ambulation, PCA discontinuation, and urinary catheter removal. Outcomes showed significantly decreased LOS without a significant increase in complications. There should be efforts to incorporate ERAS in AIS surgery. Further studies are necessary to assess patient satisfaction. Meta-analysis of Level 3 studies.
Robert Koucheki, Martin Koyle, George M. Ibrahim
European Spine Journal