Non-uniform and sparse sampling of multi-dimensional NMR spectra has over the last decade become an important tool to allow for fast acquisition of multi-dimensional NMR spectra with high resolution. The success of non-uniform sampling NMR hinge on both the development of algorithms to accurately reconstruct the sparsely sampled spectra and the design of sampling schedules that maximise the information contained in the sampled data. Traditionally, the reconstruction tools and algorithms have aimed at reconstructing the full spectrum and thus ‘fill out the missing points’ in the time-domain spectrum, although other techniques are based on multi-dimensional decomposition and extraction of multi-dimensional shapes. Also over the last decade, machine learning, deep neural networks, and artificial intelligence have seen new applications in an enormous range of sciences, including analysis of MRI spectra. As a proof-of-principle, it is shown here that simple deep neural networks can be trained to reconstruct sparsely sampled NMR spectra. For the reconstruction of two-dimensional NMR spectra, reconstruction using a deep neural network performs as well, if not better than, the currently and widely used techniques. It is therefore anticipated that deep neural networks provide a very valuable tool for the reconstruction of sparsely sampled NMR spectra in the future to come. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s10858-019-00265-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Journal of Biomolecular Nmr