the pre-1500 populations inferred by archaeologists are not as high as the earliest written accounts would suggest. Her observations parallel those of many New World archaeologists who marvel at the high populations that historians and some others suggest for the period before A.D. 1500. The conclusion by Ubelaker and Verano offers a very balanced review of the volume. The editors's call for detailed and interdisciplinary research addresses the next step in this research. Of note in the volume is an absence of the controversies that abound. Also, many authors simply assume that massive depopulations took place, and then show how their data may contribute to this picture. Yet their evidence is often inconsistent with timing, process, or extent of population change. Powell's low population estimate for a region where powerful chiefdoms were common suggests that the populations of foragers and horticulturists elsewhere in the Americas were even smaller. Archaeological and ethnohistorical work by the late Lynn Ceci in the New York City area, and mine in the Delaware Valley indicates that some native populations grew after contact. Stodder and Martin's paper suggests that such demographic shifts may have set the stage for virulent but localized disease episodes beginning in the early seventeenth century. Rarely noted are other factors or processes (traditional native warfare, recovery rates, intermarriage with newcomers, merging, passing) significant in population dynamics. We know, for example, that vast numbers of contemporary "Americans" are descended from native peoples, but little is known about the population processes linking them with their pasts. These papers indicate how important it is to provide dates for disease episodes, demonstrate their extent, and compare the results with pre-1500 population estimates independently derived by archaeologists. Among many peoples epidemics appear long after contact, when the populations had altered residential patterns into more densely settled units. The cultural disorganization, if not collapse, often inferred from these supposedly catastrophic disease episodes clearly is negated by data indicating cultural continuities for hundreds of years after A.D. 1500. This line of evidence is muted, negating the skills plus cultural and biological flexibility of Native peoples. Clearly, this volume is a must for anyone exploring any of these aspects of disease and demography. Ubelaker's call for detailed tribe-by-trib, evaluations should be taken up by the Smithsonian, perhaps with a series of gatherings in which archaeologists, demographers, ethnohistorians, and other specialists focus their concerns on specific regions of the Americas. A conference that reduced the variation in estimates of population size, or clarified the dynamics of population change for the period A.D. 1300-1700 would be hailed as a great success.