The efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization using Lipiodol (TACE) to treat recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (r-HCC) in the residual liver after radical hepatic resection was evaluated. During the last 8 years, TACE was performed in 68 patients with r-HCC for an aggregate total of 150 times. Of the 68 patients, 4 had a massive type r-HCC with tumor thrombus in the main portal vein (PVTT) at the time of the first TACE. Among the remaining 64 patients without PVTT, multiple r-HCCs were revealed in 46, and a single r-HCC in 18 by angiography and/or follow-up CT scans after the initial TACE. In 26 of the 68 patients (38.2%), at least one or more r-HCCs were fed not only by the hepatic arteries, but also by the extrahepatic collateral arteries, such as branches of the right inferior phrenic artery. The cumulative survival rates of these patients after hepatectomy and after the initial TACE for r-HCC were 98.6% and 87.1% for one year, 89.7% and 62.9% for 2 years, 74.0% and 34.3% for 3 years, 53.1% and 20.0% for 4 years and 40.3% and 0% for 5 years (mean survival duration: 1,647 days and 947 days), respectively. These results indicate that repeat TACE against r-HCC can help obtain long-term survival in patients with r-HCC. However, during TACE, we must give consideration to the newly developed collateral feeding artery to the r-HCC.
M. Okazaki, S. Yamasaki, H. Ono