Arterial beta stiffness index is a potential risk factor for increased stroke occurrence. Vascular component appears to be significant in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VAD). We aimed to further explore vascular characteristics of patients with both types of cognitive decline using non-invasive neurosonological methods. There were 38 patients; 16 diagnosed with AD and 22 with VAD. Vascular risk factors were assessed and ultrasound measurements on common carotid artery (CCA) were performed using Aloka ProSound ALPHA 10 with 13 MHz linear probe. Among AD patients there were 5 with arterial hypertension (AH), 3 with atrial fibrillation (AF), 2 with diabetes mellitus (DM), 6 with hyper lipidemia and 1 smoker. Nineteen VAD patients had AH, 6 had AF, 12 had hyper lipidemia and one was diabetic. We found no statistically significant differences between groups regarding average body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, pulse pressure, intima-media thickness (IMT), CCA diameter or arterial beta stiffness indices. However, the trend of BMI increase, slight blood and pulse pressure decrease, CCA diameter increase and beta stiffness index increase was noted in VAD patients. Even though there was no significant difference found among two explored subgroups of patients with dementia, there was a tendency of greater systolic and diastolic diameters noted in VAD as well as greater stiffness, especially when measured in the right CCA. This indicates that VAD patients may have more prominent vascular changes that may help differentiate the type of dementia and further monitor these individuals. Further studies on a larger number of patients are needed support this evidence.
S. Morović, M. Jurašić, I. Popović
Journal of the Neurological Sciences