J. Wesolowski, Andrew Kaiser
Aug 1, 2016
Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abstract Gadolinium has been widely used as the contrast agent of choice for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium administration is not always desired due to its inherent enhancement properties and potential side effects (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis). This article reviews gadolinium alternatives, iron-, and manganese- based agents, and their current clinical usage for contrast-enhanced MRI examinations.