Alan S. Morris, Reza Langari
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The chapter starts with formal definitions of absolute, gauge, and differential pressure. It then continues with a discussion on the sensors used to measure normal, mid-range pressures between 1.013 bar (the mean atmospheric pressure) and 7000 bar. This discussion involves a large number of devices including diaphragm-based sensors, capacitive sensors, fiber-optic (optical) sensors, bellows sensors, Bourdon tubes, several types of manometer, resonant wire sensors, and electronic pressure gauges (including the piezoresistive pressure sensor, piezoelectric pressure sensor, magnetic pressure sensor, and potentiometric pressure sensor). The next section then considers devices designed to measure low or vacuum pressures below 1.013 bar. Firstly, the observation is made that special forms of instruments commonly used to measure mid-range pressures can also measure pressures below atmospheric pressure. However, in addition to these, coverage is given of devices like thermocouple and thermistor gauges, the Pirani gauge, the McLeod gauge, and the ionization gauge. The use of manganin wire pressure and gold–chromium wire pressure sensors for measuring high pressures above 7000 bar is then described. Then, following a discussion on intelligent pressure sensors, the chapter ends by looking at the calibration of pressure sensors.