S. Reynoso‐Paz, R. Coppel, Vasuni Nakanuma
Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
ConclusionThere are many unresolved issues in PBC that should be the focus of investigation, but studies are hampered by the general unhelpfulness of the experimental systems. There is no satisfactory animal model for this illness, perhaps owing to the fact that the physiology of the biliary systems of many common laboratory animals differ significantly from that of humans. Secondly, the relative rarity of the disease means that we almost never come across it in the early or preclinical stage. Perhaps it is now time to design large-scale prospective surveys so that we can obtain samples from patients that can be retrospectively examined once they develop the disease. This could shed light on many immunological phenomena that we can only now examine during late-stage disease.