Dec 1, 2013
Abstract There are two types of Japanese clefts, depending on the presence of a case particle attached to a focus item: multiple foci are possible only in clefts with case-marked foci. Despite attention in the literature, what has been overlooked is the possibility of mixed cases with the last focus item in multiple foci lacking a case particle. Multiple foci data pose a challenge to previous studies within Mainstream Generative Grammar, and in particular these partially case-marked multiple foci data. In this article, I show that a more dynamic conception of language, reflecting semantic incrementality as a core design feature of the grammar, can unify the two types of clefts and a range of further issues, including the partially case-marked foci data. Finally, the analysis is extended to long-distance clefts.