C. Lenoir, C. Sapin, A. Broquet
Feb 27, 2008
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) have adapted to the presence of commensal bacteria through a state of tolerance that involves a limited response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Low or absent expression of two LPS receptor molecules, the myeloid differentiation (MD)-2 receptor, and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 was suggested to underlie LPS tolerance in IEC. In the present study we performed transfections of TLR4 and MD-2 alone or combined in different IEC lines derived from intestinal cancer (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW837). We found that LPS responsiveness increased more than 100-fold when IEC were transfected with MD-2 alone, but not TLR4. The release of interleukin (IL)-8, but also the expression of cyclooxygenase (Cox-)2 and the related secretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2 were coordinately stimulated by LPS in IEC transfected with MD-2 alone. Supernatants collected from MD-2-transfected IEC supported LPS activation of naïve HT-29, providing additional support to the concept that MD-2 alone endows IEC with LPS responsiveness. LPS responsiveness detected at concentrations as low as 110 pg/ml, and maximal values obtained by 10 ng/ml were clearly beyond those evoked by classical stimuli as IL-1beta. In polarized cells, apical LPS stimulation was markedly more efficient than basolateral. Our data contradict previous opinion that both TLR4 and MD-2 limit IEC response to LPS, and emphasize the prominent role of MD-2 in intestinal immune responses to Gram-negative bacteria.