Sep 1, 1983
Space Science Reviews
Cosmic-ray acceleration and transport is considered from the point of view of application to diffuse galactic γ-ray sources. As an introduction we review several source models, in particular supernovae exploding inside or near large interstellar clouds. The complex problem of cosmic ray transport in random electromagnetic fields is reduced to three cases which should be sufficient for practical purposes. As far as diffusive acceleration is concerned, apart from reviewing the basic physical principles, we point out the relation between shock acceleration and 2nd order Fermi acceleration, and the relative importance of the two processes around interstellar shock waves. For γ-ray source models the interaction of cosmic rays with dense clouds assumes great importance. Past discussions had been confined to static interactions of clouds with the ambient medium in the sense that no large scale mass motions in the ambient interstellar medium were considered. The well-known result then is that down to some tens of MeV or less, cosmic-ray nucleons should freely penetrate molecular clouds of typical masses and sizes. The self-exclusion of very low energy nucleons however may affect electron transport with consequences for the Bremsstrahlung γ-luminosity of such clouds.In this paper we consider also the dynamical interaction of dense clouds with a surrounding hot interstellar medium. Through cloud evaporation and accretion there exist mass flows in the cloud surroundings. We argue that in the case of (small) cloud evaporation the galactic cosmic rays will be essentially excluded from the clouds. The dynamic effects of cosmic rays on the flow should be minor in this case. For the opposite case of gas accretion onto (large) clouds, cosmic-ray effects on the flow will in general be large, limiting the cosmic-ray compression inside the cloud to dynamic pressure equilibrium. This should have a number of interesting and new consequences for γ-ray astronomy. A first, qualitative discussion is given in the last section.