E. Major, Thomas Dutson, M. Moshirfar
Aug 1, 2020
Purpose To determine the current scope of practice with regards to cycloplegic examinations, specifically in the pediatric population. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, and Google Scholar databases using keywords such as “cyclopentolate”; “tropicamide”; “pediatric”; “cycloplegia”; “atropine”; and “cycloplegic” from inception to October 2019. Results Atropine has the strongest cycloplegic effect and is recommended for cases of large accommodative esotropia. Because of the undesired side effects and risks from atropine, cyclopentolate has been found to offer a very effective cycloplegia even for moderate to high hyperopia and has become the standard of care for traditional pediatric cycloplegic exams. Tropicamide has also been shown to offer adequate cycloplegia with less toxicity and side effects. Of all agents, tropicamide presents the least side effects and toxicity, whereas atropine presents the greatest. Cyclopentolate is a very safe cycloplegic agent that has risk of toxicity which increases with higher doses and concentrations. Conclusion The American Optometric Association’s current pediatric cycloplegic guidelines have proven both safe and effective, as they recommend a conservative approach of using cyclopentolate 0.5% in infants and cyclopentolate 1% in those older than one-year old to avoid undesired side effects. Topical ophthalmic drops and spray instillation have both proved equally efficacious and therefore each have their place within a clinical setting. Using Cycolmydril under six months old and cyclopentolate 1% over 6 months old as recommended by the AAO, also provides a safe and effective guideline for cycloplegic examinations within the pediatric population.