S. C. Wong, M. Cheung, M. Zacharin
Nov 1, 2014
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Abstract Aortic dilatation and aortic dissection are increasingly recognised in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). Risk factors for aortic dissection include aortic dilatation, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of aorta and pregnancy. The risk of death due to aortic dissection in pregnancy in TS is 2%, which is approximately 100 times higher than the general population, as maternal mortality is extremely low. Ongoing cardiovascular monitoring is recommended, although there remain several unanswered questions in relation to cardiovascular imaging especially the choice of modality for detection of vascular, valvular abnormalities and measurements of aortic dimensions. Due to the relative short stature of patients with TS, aortic dimensions need to be defined by aortic measurements adjusted for body surface area, known as aortic sized index (ASI). The relationship of ASI and other risk factors with aortic dissection is only beginning to be clarified. Clinical management and monitoring of such patients should be delivered by a group of clinicians familiar with the issues unique to TS patients in a multidisciplinary fashion. All clinicians including the non-specialists need to have a low threshold of suspecting aortic dissection in these adolescents and young adults. This up to date review, including a summary of all 122 published cases of TS patients with aortic dissection, aims to provide a summary of recent publications on characteristics of aortic dissection and aortic dilatation in TS to highlight gaps in knowledge and propose possible clinical monitoring pathway of cardiovascular health in children and adults with TS. Cardiovascular assessment and risk counselling is especially crucial during the period of transition of adolescents with TS, although life long monitoring by expert cognizant to the issues specific in TS is essential.