Y. Hayashi, H. Hanawa, Shuang Jiao
Jul 24, 2015
Tissue macrophages can be activated by endogenous danger signals released from cells that are stressed or injured, leading to infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils. We postulated that macrophage-related markers might be closely associated with the existence of endogenous danger signals, reflecting ongoing tissue injury in the absence of foreign substances. This study was designed to assess the ability of macrophage-related markers in endomyocardial biopsies to predict ongoing cardiac injury in non-inflammatory myocardial diseases. We examined levels of macrophage-related markers (CD68, CD163, CD45) in endomyocardial biopsies from patients (n = 86) with various myocardial diseases by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (n = 78) and immunohistochemistry (n = 56). Thirty-three patients without inflammatory cardiac disease such as myocarditis and sarcoidosis were classified as “improved” or “non-improved” defined as a 10 % increase in left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiograph and a value greater than 30 % at the time of follow-up. All macrophage-related (MacR) markers levels were not higher in non-improved dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients than improved patients. However, patients with cardiac amyloidosis, cardiac Fabry disease, mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, and biventricular arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), which were categorized as “non-improvement diseases,” had elevated macrophage-related markers compared to improved patients. Macrophage-related markers levels were increased in endomyocardial biopsy samples of patients with intractable myocardial diseases such as amyloidosis, mitochondrial disease, Fabry disease, and biventricular ARVC.