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Fruits and vegetables are among the richest sources of ascorbic acid, other antioxidants and they produce specific bioactive compounds. A general consensus from health experts has confirmed that an increased dietary intake of antioxidant compounds found in most fresh produce types may protect against oxidative damage caused by free radicals and reduce the incidence of certain cancers and chronic diseases. This work collectively discusses and reviews empirical data on the health promoting properties of all fresh produce types, and it provides detailed information on the identity, nature, bioavailability, chemopreventive effects and postharvest stability of specific chemical classes with known bioactive properties. In addition, chapters discuss the various methodologies for extraction, isolation, characterization and quantification of bioactive compounds and the in-vitro and in-vivo anticancer assays.