S. Collins, T. Vetter
Journal of the American Oriental Society
ly formulated underworld; it attempts to teach it by illustration (see also MN 130 which was mentioned in chapter 14, and Kokalika sutta Sn III 10). This is also one of the first texts that recognizes the kingdom of animals as a destiny after death (but not yet that of the hungry ghosts, cf. MN 57). Suffering there is said to be terrible as well. It is very difficult to become a human again once one has gone to the kingdom of animals [and to the helle?)]. It is quicker for a tortoise, who lives in the great ocean and once in a hundred years rises out of the water, to put his head in a yoke which is blown by the wind back and forth on the water, than for a fool who has sunk to the depths to become a human again. That is because in the kingdom of animals [and also in the hell(?)] the one preys on the other; righteous living does not exist. But if a fool does succeed to become a human again after a long time, then he will become a Ca.Q.Qala or a member of some other low caste, he will be ugly and disabled, and he will again lead a bad life which will put him back in hell [or in the kingdom of animals(?)]. But if the wise person, after a long time, leaves heaven, then he will be reborn amongst warriors, brahmans, or citizens, will be beautiful and not disabled. He will lead a good life and go back to heaven.