V. Kloten, M. Rose, Sophie Kaspar
Aug 4, 2014
Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 5 (ITIH5) is supposed to be involved in extracellular matrix stability and thus may play a key role in the inhibition of tumor progression. The current study is the first to analyze in depth ITIH5 expression as well as its potential clinical and functional impact in colon cancer. Based on 30 tumor and 30 adjacent normal tissues we examined ITIH5 mRNA expression and promoter methylation, whose significance was further validated by independent data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) platform. In addition, ITIH5 protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. ITIH5 mRNA expression loss was significantly associated (P < 0.001) with hypermethylation of the ITIH5 promoter in primary colon tumors. In addition, treatment of tumor cell lines with demethylating (DAC) and histone acetylating (TSA) agents induced ITIH5 expression. In line, independent TCGA data revealed a significant expression loss of ITIH5, particularly in the MSI-high and CIMP-positive phenotype concordant with an increased ITIH5 hypermethylation in CIMP-positive colon tumors (P < 0.001). In proximal, i.e., right-sided tumors, abundant ITIH5 expression was associated with longer overall survival (OS, P = 0.049) and the CIMP-positive (P = 0.032) subgroup. Functionally, ITIH5 re-expression mediated a reduced proliferation in HCT116 and CaCo2 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that ITIH5 is a novel putative tumor suppressor gene in colon cancer with a potential impact in the CIMP-related pathway. ITIH5 may serve as a novel epigenetic-based diagnostic biomarker with further clinical impact for risk stratification of CIMP-positive colon cancer patients.