R. V. Pai, K. Sheshadri, R. Pandit
May 15, 2007
Physical Review B
We generalize the mean-field theory for the spinless Bose-Hubbard model to account for the different types of superfluid phases that can arise in the spin-1 case. In particular, our mean-field theory can distinguish polar and ferromagnetic superfluids, Mott insulator, that arise at integer fillings at zero temperature, and normal Bose liquids into which the Mott insulators evolve at finite temperatures. We find, in contrast to the spinless case, that several of the superfluid-Mott insulator transitions are of first order at finite temperatures. Our systematic study yields rich phase diagrams that include first-order and second-order transitions and a variety of tricritical points. We discuss the possibility of realizing such phase diagrams in experimental systems.