R. I. Holland
Feb 1, 1991
Scandinavian journal of dental research
The number and in particular the diversity in types and composition of alloys used in dentistry are increasing, thus enhancing the need for predictive corrosion testing. No corrosion test is generally accepted as being both applicable to and relevant for all dental alloys. However, some methods have gained a certain recognition, and among these are the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The purpose of the present work was to study the application, the reproducibility and the influence of some methodological variables on the results of potentiodynamic polarization corrosion testing. Embedded specimens of 18 different dental alloys, representing all major types, were subjected to anodic polarization scan within the potential range of -700 mV to 1000 mV (SCE). Artificial saliva, with and without organic compounds, and sodium sulfide solution were used as electrolytes. The results were processed on a microcomputer using locally developed software. The curves of current density versus potential showed fair reproducibility, with great differences between some of the alloys, showing a clear relationship to nobility or passivity of the alloy. There were marked differences between the results obtained in artificial saliva and in sodium sulfide solution, while addition of organic components to the artificial saliva only had a minor effect. The potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test supplies detailed information such as anodic charge, and open circuit, rupture, and passivation potential. Furthermore, it indicates the passive range and sensitivity to pitting corrosion. These are all useful when evaluating the corrosion properties of a dental alloy. An analysis of variance of the results in this study showed that possible differences between the alloys were clearly detectable with this method. However, for alloys releasing non-ionic products during corrosion/degradation, the method may be inappropriate. It is thus concluded that the method appears applicable as an in vitro corrosion test for most dental alloys, with the possible exception of amalgams.