On June 28-29, 1990, a subpanel of 13 medical professionals that were part of a task force on medical rehabilitation research met in Huntsville, Maryland to establish recommendations for basic science and clinical research in cancer rehabilitation. The findings were published, with permission of the National Institute of Health, in 1991 in this journal.1 On May 4, 2012, a panel of physical therapists with extensive background and experience in oncology practice met in Richmond, Virginia as part of the 8th Biennial Cancer Rehabilitation Conference, “Integrative Medicine in Cancer Rehabilitation,” which is sponsored by the Massey Cancer Center of Virginia Commonwealth University’s Medical College of Virginia. The purpose of this invited panel was to examine the findings of the original subpanel and determine if the research priorities outlined had been met, if the recommended directives had been followed or implemented, and perhaps most importantly, if the research guidelines and indications had changed over the last 22 years. The 2012 panel members and their affiliations are listed in the appendix. Each individual brought their own expertise and experience to the examination process. The objective was to carefully explore the research directives and needs at that time, and determine if they had been addressed over the last two decades, and to ascertain how these directives may have changed as medicine, and in particular, rehabilitation, advanced over the years. Another secondary objective was to determine the effect these advances in cancer management may have had or do have on the evaluation and treatment of cancer related disability. In a time when research in the area of oncology rehabilitation has advanced exponentially in some areas and more slowly in others, it is propitious and timely to check our progress in addressing the rehabilitation needs of this patient population. It is well known that cancer and its treatment can cause impairments that lead to disability. The functional deficits that ensue vary widely, but include loss of speech or a limb, loss of range of motion or ambulatory ability, incontinence, disfigurement, and dysphagia, among others. When the original task force subpanel met in 1990, the following topics were chosen to be addressed: head and neck cancer, breast cancer, bone and soft tissue cancers, pain, psychosocial factors, sexual dysfunction, and metastatic disease. Note that this list is far from inclusive, and omits many types of cancers and rehabilitation issues that the physical therapist practicing in oncology will encounter. However, it is representative of the cancers and the problems that were being seen at the time. Each of the original topics will be addressed in turn, and new challenges in cancer rehabilitation that have arisen since 1990 will be outlined. The 2012 group felt strongly that each topic, cancer site, or problem should be explored in 3 phases: inpatient acute treatment phase, the outpatient treatment phase, and the long term follow up for sequelae-survivorship is the new umbrella term. All cancer sites could be approached in this manner, dividing the rehabilitative issues into a time line where all needs and problems are addressed throughout the disease continuum.