I. Mares, C. Mares, V. Dobrica
Sep 27, 2022
The purpose of this study was to obtain synergistic information and details in the time–frequency domain of the relationships between the Palmer drought indices in the upper and middle Danube River basin and the discharge (Q) in the lower basin. Four indices were considered: the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), Palmer hydrological drought index (PHDI), weighted PDSI (WPLM) and Palmer Z-index (ZIND). These indices were quantified through the first principal component (PC1) analysis of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition, which was obtained from hydro-meteorological parameters at 15 stations located along the Danube River basin. The influences of these indices on the Danube discharge were tested, both simultaneously and with certain lags, via linear and nonlinear methods applying the elements of information theory. Linear connections were generally obtained for synchronous links in the same season, and nonlinear ones for the predictors considered with certain lags (in advance) compared to the discharge predictand. The redundancy–synergy index was also considered to eliminate redundant predictors. Few cases were obtained in which all four predictors could be considered together to establish a significant information base for the discharge evolution. In the fall season, nonstationarity was tested through wavelet analysis applied for the multivariate case, using partial wavelet coherence (pwc). The results differed, depending on the predictor kept in pwc, and on those excluded.