B. Siddhardha, Paramanantham Parasuraman
Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery and Therapy
Abstract In the recent era, nanobased technologies have resolved many complicated issues in the field of science and technology. Nevertheless they also open a new window in biomedical field focusing personalized medicine. Nanoparticles are one of the great innovations of science because they possess unique characteristics such as high specific surface area and physicochemical properties such as optical properties, magnetic properties, electronic properties, catalytic activity, and antimicrobial properties. The delivering of therapeutic drug molecules to the targeted tumor site are highly required to overcome the side effects during cancer treatment. In the past two decades various efforts were carried out to use nanomaterial based drug delivery system to facilitate site-specific cancer therapy. Theranostics is a recently released technology from the nanoworld that refers to a technique of integration of diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic approaches into one package. Thus, theranostics diagnosing as well as imaging diseases like cancer, on the other hand it delivers therapeutic drugs at the same time with specific dosage. This chapter presents an overview of developments in nanotheranostics with different diagnostic probes and therapeutic drugs combination of targeted nanobased medicines for cancer treatment. Synthesis and applications of nanoparticles such as inorganic nanoparticles, linear and branched polymers, micelles, protein conjugates and dendrimers in theranostics was also discussed. In addition, the application of theranostics in imaging techniques like single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence/optical imaging for in vivo imaging were emphasized.