X. Shi, H. Jiang, Y. Mao
Jan 8, 1996
Free radical generation, 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) hydroxylation and DNA damage by vanadium(IV) reactions were investigated. Vanadium(IV) caused molecular oxygen dependent dG hydroxylation to form 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). During a 15 min incubation of 1.0 mM dG and 1.0 mM VOSO4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) at room temperature under ambient air, dG was converted to 8-OHdG with a yield of about 0.31%. Catalase and formate inhibited the 8-OHdG formation while superoxide dismutase enhanced it. Metal ion chelators, DTPA and deferoxamine, blocked the 8-OHdG formation. Incubation of vanadium(IV) with dG in argon did not generate any significant amount of 8-OHdG, indicating the role of molecular oxygen in the mechanism of vanadium(IV)-induced dG hydroxylation. Vanadium(IV) also caused molecular oxygen-dependent DNA strand breaks in a pattern similar to that observed for dG hydroxylation. ESR spin trapping measurements demonstrated that the reaction of vanadium(IV) with H2O2 generated OH radicals, which were inhibited by DTPA and deferoxamine. Incubation of vanadium(IV) with dG or with DNA in the presence of H2O2 resulted in an enhanced 8-OHdG formation and substantial DNA double strand breaks. Sodium formate inhibited 8-OHdG formation while DTPA had no significant effect. Deferoxamine enhanced the 8-OHdG generation by 2.5-fold. ESR and UV measurements provided evidence for the complex formation between vanadium(IV) and deferoxamine. UV-visible measurements indicate that dG, vanadium(IV) and deferoxamine are able to form a complex, thereby, facilitating site-specific 8-OHdG formation. Reaction of vanadium(IV) with t-butyl hydroperoxide generated hydroperoxide-derived free radicals, which caused 8-OHdG formation from dG and DNA strand breaks. DTPA and deferoxamine attenuated vanadium(IV)/t-butyl-OOH-induced DNA strand breaks.