Does the CO2 Atmosphere of Mars Disprove Greenhouse Warming?

Does the CO2 atmosphere of Mars disprove greenhouse warming?

Does the CO2 atmosphere of Mars disprove greenhouse warming?

Check out this answer from Consensus:

The current understanding of Mars’ climate history and the role of a CO2 atmosphere does not disprove the concept of greenhouse warming. Instead, it provides a complex picture of how greenhouse gases, including CO2, may have influenced the planet’s climate, potentially allowing for a warm and wet environment in its early history. Further research, including spectroscopic searches for carbonates, is necessary to refine our understanding of the Martian paleoclimate and the evolution of its atmosphere8.

 

Introduction to Greenhouse Warming

Greenhouse warming is a climatic phenomenon where certain gases in a planet’s atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), trap heat from the sun, leading to an increase in surface temperature. This effect is critical for maintaining habitable temperatures on Earth and is hypothesized to have played a role in the climates of other planets, including Mars.

The Martian Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect

Mars today has a thin atmosphere composed primarily of CO2, but it is not thick enough to support a strong greenhouse effect to maintain warm temperatures. However, there is evidence suggesting that early Mars had a much thicker CO2 atmosphere, which could have contributed to a warmer climate, potentially allowing liquid water to exist on the surface3468.

CO2 Condensation and Climate Implications

Studies using climate models have explored the potential for a dense CO2 atmosphere to warm early Mars. One such model considers the influence of CO2 clouds on the convective lapse rate and the planetary radiation budget. The condensation of CO2 can decrease the lapse rate, reducing the greenhouse effect’s magnitude, particularly at lower solar luminosities. This suggests that a warm, globally averaged surface temperature on early Mars might have required additional greenhouse gases besides CO2 and H2O1.

Experimental Constraints on CO2 Clouds

Laboratory studies have investigated the nucleation and growth of CO2 on water ice under Martian conditions. These studies found that CO2 clouds, or “snow,” would consist of a small number of large particles, which could impact the planet’s climate by either warming or cooling, depending on the particle size2.

The Role of Additional Greenhouse Gases

Research has also considered the combined effect of CO2 with other greenhouse gases, such as H2 and SO2, which could have been released by volcanic activity. Simulations suggest that these gases could have contributed to warming Mars above the freezing point of water, supporting the idea of a warm early Mars with flowing liquid water46.

The Transition to a Colder Mars

The transition from a warmer to a colder Martian climate is likely due to the loss of CO2 from the atmosphere to various sinks, such as carbonate minerals or CO2 ice. Spacecraft measurements have been used to estimate the loss of CO2 to space and to non-atmospheric reservoirs, accounting for the shift to the cold, dry atmosphere present since the early Hesperian epoch7.

 

Does the CO2 atmosphere of Mars disprove greenhouse warming?

Joel Younger has answered Extremely Unlikely

An expert from University of Adelaide in Atmospheric Science, Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Plasma Physics

Short answer: The atmosphere of Mars is very thin, so while CO2 does convert infrared radiation into heat (faster moving gas molecules), there just isn’t much of it to heat up. Plus, Mars is farther away from the Sun than Earth, so it doesn’t get as much energy to warm it up.

Let’s start with some background on what the greenhouse effect is. If a planet has no atmosphere, we can easily calculate the temperature of a planet’s surface based on the amount of energy the Sun produces, the distance of the planet from the Sun, and the amount of light that the planet reflects. This is known as the effective temperature. To figure out what the temperature of a planet with an atmosphere is, we need to think about how much solar radiation is absorbed going down through the atmosphere, and how much radiation coming off of the planet’s surface is absorbed by the atmosphere before it gets to space. The greenhouse effect is when some of the energy radiated upward by a planet’s surface is absorbed and converted to heat before it gets to space.

The Sun emits light at many frequencies, but most of the energy is in the visible part of the spectrum that we can see with our eyes. On Earth, UV is absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere, which heats the middle atmospere, but Earth’s atmosphere is almost completely transparent to visible light. The ground, however absorbs some of this light, is heated, and radiates energy away at wavelengths based on the surface temperature, which is mainly infrared (IR) light for terrestrial temperatures. IR gets absorbed by “greenhouse” gases like CO2, water vapor, and methane, which heats up the absorbing gases. Atmospheric scientists refer to this process as the radiative balance or radiative equilibrium of downward shortwave (visible light) and upward longwave (infrared) radiation. The mathematics can get complicated, but the general idea is: radiation going down from the Sun or up from the ground can be absorbed, which heats the atmosphere.

The reason the martian surface is cold (compared to Earth) is twofold:

  1. The thing about the atmosphere of Mars is that there isn’t very much of it. Compare the density of the atmosphere at the surface for Earth: 1.27 kg/m3 and Mars: 0.020 kg/m3. There is much less atmospheric mass between the surface of Mars and space than there is on Earth. Mars’s atmosphere is what is known as “optically thin”, which means that the probability of an infrared photon being absorbed as it travels up or down through the atmosphere is very low. Earth, on the other hand, has much more atmosphere between the surface and space, making it much more likely that infrared radiation from the surface will be absorbed by the atmosphere. The calculated effective temperature of the surface of Mars is -63 C, which is also the average measured surface temperature. This means that the atmosphere is so thin, it absorbs negligible amounts of IR radiation coming off of the ground.
  2. Mars is further away from the Sun than Earth, which means it receives much less energy from the Sun. Mars orbits at more than 1.5 times the distance that Earth does from the Sun, so it only gets about 43% of the energy that Earth does (586 W/m2 for Mars vs. 1361 W/m2 for Earth).

Numbers used here were taken from the National Space Science Data Center at https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/marsfact.html

More information on radiative equilibrium (including the grey atmosphere approximation not discussed here) in planetary atmospheres can be found in texts like The Physics of Atmospheres by John Houghton or An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by David Andrews.

 

Does the CO2 atmosphere of Mars disprove greenhouse warming?

Jan Cami has answered Extremely Unlikely

An expert from University of Western Ontario in Astronomy, Astrophysics, Astrochemistry, Physics

The greenhouse effect is a fairly well understood and tested phenomenon that you can easily recreate in a laboratory setting. CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and so any planet with CO2 in the atmosphere will experience some greenhouse warming as a consequence. The Earth, Venus, and Mars all have CO2 in their atmospheres, and thus they all experience the greenhouse effect to some extent. However, the magnitude of the greenhouse effect between those three planets is wildly diffferent. Several factors influence the amount of greenhouse warming: the distance from the Sun (the further away, the less radiation is received), the reflectivity of the planet (if more radiation is reflected, less can be used for heating), how much atmosphere there is, and the concentration of greenhouse gases. It is true that Mars has a much higher fraction of CO2 in its atmosphere than the Earth: for Mars, about 95% of the atmosphere is CO2, whereas for the Earth it is far less than 1%. However, Mars simply has far less of an atmosphere than the Earth. The surface pressure due to the atmosphere on Earth is 1 bar, but on Mars it is less than 1/100 of that! That makes the greenhouse warming much smaller on Mars than on the Earth — but it is still there! For the Earth, the greenhouse effect makes the planet on average about 30 degrees Celsius warmer than it would be without the greenhouse effect; for Mars, the greenhouse warming is only about 6 degrees. Venus is another illustration. Venus has an atmosphere that is very similar to Mars in terms of relative composition: about 96% of the atmosphere is CO2. But Venus has much more atmosphere than the Earth: at the surface, pressure is 90 bars! Consequently, the greenhouse effect is much more pronounced on Venus: the greenhouse warming is more than 500 degrees — which is why on the surface of Venus, it’s hot enough to melt lead. So all planets with CO2 in their atmospheres experience greenhouse warming; how much warming precisely depends also on how much atmosphere they have, and how far away from the Sun they are.

 

Does the CO2 atmosphere of Mars disprove greenhouse warming?

Francois Forget has answered Extremely Unlikely

An expert from Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Planetology

On the opposite the study of Mars confirms the reality of greenhouse warming.

The same radiative transfer calculations that are used on the Earth to demonstrate greenhouse warming can be performed to the thin CO2 Mars atmosphere and they explain and match very well the observations of atmospheric and surface temperatures on Mars.

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